Presented to Parliament by the Secretary of State for the Colonies,
Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs and the Minister of Defence
by Command of Her Majesty
1. Following the Agreement concluded at the London Conference on Cyprus
on the 19th February, 1959 (Cmnd. 679) and in accordance with measures
agreed at the Conference, action was taken both in Cyprus and in London
to prepare for the transfer of sovereignty.
JOINT (CONSTITUTIONAL) COMMISSION
2. In Cyprus a Joint Commission was established with the duty of completing
a draft Constitution for the independent Republic of Cyprus, incorporating
the Basic Structure agreed at the Zurich Conference (Document II (a) of
Cmnd. 679). This Commission completed its work on the 6th April, 1960,
when the draft Constitution was signed at Nicosia. Her Majesty's Government
in the United Kingdom were not represented on the Joint Commission. The
text of the Constitution has. however, been made available to Her Majesty's
Government who have informed the other parties that they have no comments
on it. Her Majesty's Government, as parties to the Treaty of Guarantee,
are guarantors, together with Greece and Turkey, of the provisions of the
Basic Articles of the Constitution. It is under certain Articles of the
Constitution that guarantees are given for the protection of fundamental
human rights, for the interests of the smaller religious groups, and for
the protection of the interests of members of the public services, in accordance
with paragraph B (2) of the Declaration by the Government of the United
Kingdom (Document III of Cmnd. 679).
3. A Transitional Committee was established in Cyprus with responsibility
for drawing up plans for adapting and reorganising the Government machinery
in preparation for the transfer of authority to the
independent Republic. This Transitional Committee has met with the Governor's
Executive Council as a Joint Council. Greek Cypriot and Turkish Cypriot
members of the Council assumed certain ministerial responsibilities, including
chose of bringing forward policy proposals to the Joint Council and carrying
out its decisions. The purpose has been to build up a Cabinet system and
a system of Ministerial responsibility. During this transitional period,
however, the Governor has remained head of the Executive with full legislative
4. Progress has been made in the reorganisation of the public services.
Cypriot officers have taken over responsibility for all but a few posts
in the public service and officers have been designated to fill the remaining
posts on independence.
5. Elections were held in December 1959. Archbishop Makarios and Dr.
Kutchuk were returned as President- and Vice-President-elect of the Republic.
Legislation has been passed and administrative arrangements made
for the holding of elections to the House of Representatives and the
two Communal Chambers. As envisaged in the draft Constitution these elections
will be held before independence.
NEGOTIATIONS IN LONDON AND CYPRUS
6. In London a Committee was set up, known as the London Joint Committee,
on which the three Governments and the two Cypriot communities were represented,
with the duty of preparing drafts of the final Treaties giving effect to
the conclusions of the London Conference. The Secretary of State for Foreign
Affairs invited the Foreign Ministers of Greece and Turkey and Archbishop
Makarios and Dr. Kutchuk to a conference in London on the 16th January
to review the work of the London Joint Committee and to aim at reaching
final decisions on outstanding questions. The Governor took part in the
discussions. The conference was not however able to complete consideration
of all outstanding matters and, at the request of the Greek Cypriot delegation,
and with the agreement of the Turkish Cypriot delegation. the date for
independence was postponed for one month to the 19th March, 1960. On the
4th February Mr. Julian Amery, Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for
the Colonies, visited Cyprus to discuss the situation with the Governor,
and while there had talks with the leaders of the two communities. On the
8th February it was announced in Cyprus that the necessary legislation
could not be passed through Parliament in time for the Republic to attain
independence by the 19th March. Mr. Amery returned from Cyprus on the 9th
February. Explanatory discussions continued between the Governor and the
Cypriot leaders until the 16th February. On the 23rd February Mr. Amery
returned to Cyprus to continue negotiations with the Cypriot leaders. These
negotiations continued until the 1st July, 1960, when agreement was reached
on all points.
7. The Treaties and other documents are annexed to this Paper. It is
the intention of Her Majesty's Government to execute these documents, where
appropriate, when Parliament has signified its consent to the Cyprus Bill
and as soon as the Republic of Cyprus has come into being, on a date to
be designated by Order in Council made under Clause 1 of the Bill. The
intention is that the Treaties and other documents should be signed in
Nicosia on Independence Day.
INDEX OF DOCUMENTS ANNEXED
Draft Treaty of Establishment between the United Kingdom,
Greece, Turkey and the Republic of Cyprus ...
ANNEX A: (Sovereign Base Areas)
ANNEX D: (Nationality)
ANNEX E: (Finance and Administration)
ANNEX F: Part I (Trade and Commerce)...
Part II (Most-Favoured-Nation Treatment),
Draft Treaty of Guarantee between the United Kingdom, Greece Turkey
and the Republic of Cyprus
ANNEX B: Part I (Definitions)
Part II (Sites and Facilities)
Part III (Land Tenure)
Part IV (Training)
Part V (Nicosia Airfield)
Part VI (Payments)
ANNEX C: (Status of Forces) ...
Draft Treaty of Alliance between Greece, Turkey and the Republic of
Draft Constitution of the Republic of Cyprus
Statement concerning the Rights of Smaller Religious Groups in Cyprus
Statement issued on the 20th January, 1960, concerning the Republic
of Cyprus and the Commonwealth
Draft Exchange of Notes regarding Access to Ormidhia Xylotymbou and
Dhekelia Power Station (related to Annex to the draft Treaty of Establishment)
Draft Exchange of Notes regarding the Boundary Commission (related
to Annex A to the draft Treaty of Establishment)
Draft Exchange of Notes regarding Special Arrangements relating to
Sites (related to Part II of Annex B to the draft Treaty of Establishment)
Draft Exchange of Notes regarding Very Short Term Sites (related to
Part II of Annex B to the draft Treaty of Establishment)
Draft Exchange of Notes regarding Crown Properties in the Sovereign
Base Areas (related to Sections I and 2 of Annex E to the draft Treaty
Draft Exchange of Notes regarding the Identification of Loan' (related
to paragraph 3 (b) (ii) of Section 2 of Annex E to the draft Treaty of
Draft Exchange of Notes regarding Customs Duties (related to paragraph
4 (b) of Section 11 of Annex C and Part I of Annex E to the draft Treaty
Draft Exchange of Notes regarding Most-Favoured-Nation Treatment (related
to Part Il of Annex F to the draft Treat, of Establishment)
Draft Exchange of Notes and Declaration by Her Majesty Government
in the United Kingdom regarding the Administration of the Sovereign Base
Draft Exchange of Notes regarding the Future of the Sovereign Base
Draft Exchange of Notes regarding Colonial Stock ...
Draft Exchange of Notes regarding Financial Assistance to the Republic
Draft Exchange of Notes regarding Financial Liabilities Outstanding
Draft Exchange of Notes regarding British Residents in Cyprus
Draft Exchange of Notes regarding Financial Assistance to the Turkish
Small-scale illustrative map
NOTES ON DOCUMENTS ANNEXED
SOVEREIGN BASE AREAS
1. Article 1 and Annex A to the draft Treaty of Establishment deal with
-the definition and demarcation of the land boundaries of the two areas
to be retained under British sovereignty and of their territorial waters.
The areas are shown on Maps Nos. 1 and 2 at Appendix V to this Paper.
2. The land boundaries are defined in Section 1 of Annex A. Section 2 and
Appendix H to this Paper provide for their demarcation on the ground by
a Boundary Commission composed of representatives appointed by the United
Kingdom and by the Republic. Provision is made for the settlement by an
independent expert of any question of the correct interpretation of the
maps and other material defining the boundaries. In addition the Commission
may, if both sides agree, make minor amendments to the boundaries to take
account of local administrative conditions. Section 3 defines the territorial
waters of the Sovereign Base Areas.
Dhekelia Power Station
3. This power station, situated on Republican territory, will supply power
both to the Republic and to the Sovereign Base Areas. Section 4 of Annex
A will allow the service authorities, in the circumstances set out in this
section, to provide staff, labour and equipment if adequate supplies of
power are not maintained.
United Kingdom Defence Rights and Facilities
4. The rights and facilities in the Republic of Cyprus to be enjoyed by
the United Kingdom Government were outlined in the Annex to the Declaration
of the United Kingdom Government of February, 1959 (Annex to Document III
of Cmnd. 679). Article 2 and Annex B to the draft Treaty of Establishment
deal with the rights secured to the United Kingdom Government in the Republic
of Cyprus. Article 4 and Annex C deal with the status of forces in the
territory of the Republic and in the Sovereign Base Areas.
5. Sections 1, 2 and 3 of Part II of Annex B to the draft Treaty secure
for the United Kingdom authorities the use of a number of Sites in the
territory of the Republic of Cyprus. These Sites are shown on Map No. 3
at Appendix V to this Paper. The Sites are in four Schedules. The United
Kingdom will have the right to use, without restriction or interference,
the Sites listed in Schedules A and B. For the Sites listed in Schedules
C and D less extensive rights will be sufficient. Those listed in Schedules
A and C are for permanent retention: those in Schedules B and D will be
released as soon as practicable.
6. The following are some of the facilities secured to the United Kingdom
by the same Annex. Section 4 deals with freedom of movement in the Republic
and the right for military aircraft to overfly the territory of the Republic.
The United Kingdom authorities, under Section 5, will have the right to
use the ports and harbors of the Republic. The United Kingdom authorities
will also have the right to install and operate communications systems
and postal services (Section 6), to employ Cypriot nationals (Section 7)
and to undertake surveys (Section 8). Provision is made in Section 8, 3
for the establishment of a Committee to keep under review questions relating
to water supplies affecting on the one hand the Sovereign Base Areas and
the United Kingdom sites and other installations, and on the other hand
the Republic. Section 9, 4 deals with the extension of facilities to Commonwealth
7. Part III of Annex B to the draft Treaty concerns the rights of the United
Kingdom authorities to acquire and own immovable property (including land)
in the Republic, and to dispose of immovable property if it is no longer
needed. The provisions include arrangements for payments to be made in
certain circumstances and for disputes about the amounts of such payments
to be settled by arbitration.
8. Part IV of Annex B to the draft Treaty makes provision for the United
Kingdom Government to have training facilities in the territory of the
Republic; specified areas will be used for manoeuvres, field-firing, engineer
training, artillery ranges, amphibious warfare, naval bombardment, parachute
dropping and airborne exercises. There will be facilities for air training
in specified areas, including an air to ground firing range, a high level
bombing range and an instrument flying area. Provision is made (Section
8) for the payment of compensation where appropriate. The areas to be used
for training purposes are shown on Map No. 3 at Appendix V to this Paper.
9. Part V of Annex B to the draft Treaty provides for the joint use of
Nicosia airfield for civil and military purposes. Sections 1 and 2 define
the part of the airfield exclusively for the use of the United Kingdom,
and other parts, notably the runways, designated as joint user areas. The
existing civil terminal area will be under the control of the Republic
of Cyprus until a new civil terminal has been constructed. Her Majesty's
Government have undertaken to pay £500,000 for the construction of this
10. The Republic of Cyprus will be responsible for all purely civil
aviation matters; under Section 2 the United Kingdom will have such facilities
as they consider necessary for the operation of military aircraft in peace
and war. Under Section 7 the Republic of Cyprus will provide air traffic
control within the Cyprus Flight Information Region. There will be single
and undivided approach and aerodrome control. This approach control, at
present exercised by the United Kingdom, will become the responsibility
of the Republic of Cyprus as soon as they have the qualified staff to exercise
it, but the United Kingdom will have the right to provide staff to assist
and to exercise exclusive control in emergency.
11. The United Kingdom will be responsible for the maintenance of existing
joint user facilities (Section 5), and will make freely available to the
Republic of Cyprus such meteorological, fire, crash, search and rescue
facilities as are provided for the operation of military aircraft (Section
9). Financial arrangements are set out in Section 12.
12. The areas of the airfield and its surroundings which are to be used
exclusively by the United Kingdom and which are to be used jointly with
the Republic of Cyprus are shown on Map No. 4 at Appendix V to this Paper.
13. Part VI of Annex B to the draft Treaty specifies items in respect of
which payments will be made by the United Kingdom.
Status of Forces
14. The status of forces in the island is dealt with in Article 4 and Annex
C to the draft Treaty. The provisions are reciprocal and will apply both
to United Kingdom forces in the Republic and to Cypriot forces in the Sovereign
Base Areas. Among the more important provisions is that concerning jurisdiction
which generally follows Article VII of the Agreement regarding the Status
of Forces of Parties to the North Atlantic Treaty, Cmnd. 9363 (Section
8). Broadly speaking, Service Courts will normally exercise criminal and
disciplinary jurisdiction over servicemen, the civilian component and their
dependents for offences involving United Kingdom personnel and property
only, offences committed on official duty and offences committed solely
within the Sites. The Republic's Courts will normally exercise jurisdiction
for other offences. Special arrangements are made for the settlement of
claims arising from injury or damage caused by members of the forces (Section
9). Section 11 deals with customs arrangements.
15. Article 6 and Annex D to the draft Treaty make provision for determining
the nationality of persons affected by the settlement.
16. Section 2 defines the persons who, by reason of their connexion
with and residence in Cyprus, will automatically become citizens of the
Republic of Cyprus as from the establishment of the Republic. Section 3
provides that, as from a date six months after the date of the Treaty all
the persons with the qualifications specified in Section 2, 2 shall lose
their citizenship of the United Kingdom and Colonies but excepts from such
loss certain categories of' persons who possess a connexion with the United
Kingdom and Colonies. These categories are set out in Section 3, 2. Such
persons will for the time being possess dual citizenship, but will be able
to renounce either their citizenship of the United Kingdom and Colonies
or their citizenship of Cyprus.
17. Section 4 makes provision by which certain categories of persons
resident outside Cyprus may, by application to the authorities of the Republic
of Cyprus, be granted citizenship of Cyprus. By Section 4,14 any person
thus granted citizenship of Cyprus will thereupon lose his citizenship
of the United Kingdom and Colonies. Section 5 makes provision whereby persons
naturalised or registered as citizens of the United Kingdom and Colonies
in Cyprus, and their descendants in the male line, may obtain citizenship
of Cyprus on application made within 12 months of the establishment of
the Republic; by Section 5, 5 persons who thus become citizens of the Republic
will cease to be citizens of the United Kingdom and Colonies.
18. Section 6 gives an entitlement to certain married women to acquire
citizenship of the Republic on the strength of their husband's status under
the terms of the Annex. Section 7 enables persons who lose citizenship
of the United Kingdom and Colonies under Section 3 to re-acquire it within
two years of the establishment of the Republic on the same terms as if
they were British subjects other than citizens of the United Kingdom and
Colonies. (The normal conditions for such acquisition of citizenship, as
laid down in Section 6 (1) of the British Nationality Act, 1948, are that
the person shall be ordinarily resident in the United Kingdom and Colonies
on the date of the application and shall have been so resident for the
immediately preceding 12 months.) Section 8 requires the Republic of Cyprus
to give to citizens of the Republic who also possess another nationality
or citizenship the right to renounce their citizenship of the Republic;
a corresponding right for citizens of the United Kingdom and Colonies is
already provided for by Section 19 of the British Nationality Act, 1948.
ASSETS, LIABILITIES AND THE RIGHTS OF CERTAIN PUBLIC OFFICERS
19. Annex E to the draft Treaty and Appendices L and S to this Paper cover
certain financial and administrative arrangements consequent on the transfer
20. Section I deals with transfer of property of the Government of the
Colony of Cyprus to the Government of the Republic. Section 2 provides
for the assumption by the Government of the Republic of legal liabilities
and obligations of the Government of the Colony.
21. The arrangements concerning the pensions and other rights of certain
public officers who retired as a consequence of the impending transfer
of power and the conditions of service and other rights of certain officers
who continue in the service of the Republic are set out in Section 5 and
the Schedule thereto, read in conjunction with the relevant Articles of
CUSTOMS ARRANGEMENTS BETWEEN THE REPUBLIC AND THE SOVEREIGN BASE AREAS
22. Part I of Annex F to the draft Treaty and Appendix M to this Paper
set out the customs arrangements between the Republic and the Sovereign
Base Areas which follow from the recognition that customs barriers between
them should be avoided. Section 8 provides for a committee to be established
to keep customs arrangements under review.
23. Part II of Annex F to the draft Treaty and Appendix N to this Paper
deal with most-favoured-nation treatment for the United Kingdom, Greece
ADMINISTRATION OF THE SOVEREIGN BASE AREAS
24. Her Majesty will continue to exercise sovereignty and jurisdiction
over the two Sovereign Base Areas.
25. The Air Officer Commanding-in-Chief, Middle East Air Force, Royal
Air Force, will be appointed Administrator of the Areas, and will be responsible
to the Secretary of State for Air. The Administrator will be empowered
to make laws for the peace, order and good government of the Areas. The
costs of administration will be borne by Air Votes.
26. Her Majesty's Government have undertaken to make a declaration regarding
the administration of the Sovereign Base Areas. The terms of the declaration
are at Appendix O to this Paper.
CYPRUS AND THE COMMONWEALTH
27. In the course of their discussions in London in January, 1960, the
President- and Vice-President-Elect of the Republic of Cyprus called twice
on the Secretary of State for Commonwealth Relations to discuss what continuing
links the new Republic might have with the Commonwealth after Independence.
28. After their second meeting on 20th January, an agreed statement
v issued to the Press in the terms set out in Appendix F to this Paper.
THE SMALLER RELIGIOUS GROUPS
29. The Armenians, Maronites and Latins constitute three separate religious
groups in the island. A statement by Her Majesty's Government on constitutional
safeguards for these groups in accordance with paragraph B (2) (i) of the
United Kingdom Declaration made at the London Conference of February, 1959
(Document III of Cmnd. 679) is at Appendix E to this Paper. This statement
has been accepted by Archbishop Makarios and Dr. Kutchuk.
30. The special interests of the British Community in the island are to
be safeguarded by the exchange of notes set out at Appendix T to this Paper.
The British residents will have the right to remain citizens of the United
Kingdom and Colonies. They will enjoy the fundamental rights and liberties
provided in Part II of the Constitution (Appendix D to this Paper) for
all persons, but only those who become citizens of the Republic will be
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