*** A USAID Health Profile: CYPRUS ***
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Table of Contents
I: Health & Demographic Overview
Current Demographic and Health Indicators Trends in Selected Demographic and Health Indicators Population Estimates Vaccination Coverage Rates ORS Access, ORS and/or RHF Use Rates Contraceptive Prevalence Rate Access to Potable Water Access to Adequate Sanitation Comparative IMR Rates Comparative Vaccination Coverage Rates Comparative ORS Access, ORS and/or RHF Use Rates
II: Data Notes
III: Sources ***
*** *** *** *** *** *** NOTE on SOURCES *** *** *** *** *** ***
Sources in this profile are referred to by a seven-digit code. Generally, the first three letters refer to an organization, agency, etc., and the first two numbers indicate the year of the publication or other source document. A complete list of sources appears at the end of the profile.
I. A. Current Demographic and Health Indicators: CYPRUS
DEMOGRAPHIC INDICATORS VALUE YEAR SOURCE Total Population 722,400 1993 UNP9200 Urban Population 396,800 1993 UNP9200 Women Ages 15-49 181,000 1993 UNP9200 Infant Mortality Rate 9 1993 BUC9300 Under 5 Mortality 11 1993 BUC9300 Maternal Mortality - Life Expectancy At Birth 77 1993 UNP9200 Number Of Births 12,100 1993 UNP9200 Annual Infant Deaths 113 1993 CALXX01 Total Fertility Rate 2.2 1993 UNP9200 CHILD SURVIVAL INDICATORS VALUE YEAR SOURCE BCG - DPT 3 90 1991 WHE9200 Measles 74 1991 WHE9200 Polio 3 90 1991 WHE9200 Tetanus 2 63 1991 WHE9401 DPT Drop Out - ORS Access Rate 95 1993 WHD9401 ORT Use Rate 60 1993 WHD9401 Modern Methods - All Methods - Adequate Nutritional Status - Appropriate Infant Feeding - Exclusive Breastfeeding - Complementary Feeding - Continued Breastfeeding - OTHER HEALTH INDICATORS VALUE YEAR SOURCE HIV-Urban - HIV-Rural - Access to potable water/Urban 100 1990 WHO9200 Access to potable water/Rural 100 1990 WHO9200 Access to sanitation/Urban 96 1990 WHO9200 Access to sanitation/Rural 100 1990 WHO9200 Deliveries/Trained Attendants -
I. B. Trends in Selected Demographic and Health Indicators: CYPRUS
UNDER CRUDE CRUDE AVG ANNUAL TOTAL INFANT FIVE BIRTH DEATH GROWTH FERTILITY MORTALITY MORTALITY RATE RATE RATE RATE 1950 71 92 28 10.5 1.3 3.8 1955 46 54 27 10.5 1.5 3.6 1960 33 37 26 10.5 0.9 3.5 1965 32 36 23 10.3 0.7 3.1 1970 32 36 20 9.9 0.5 2.6 1975 27 32 18 9.2 0.2 2.4 1980 20 23 20 8.5 0.9 2.3 1985 15 17 20 8.5 1.1 2.4 1990 11 12 18 8.1 1.0 2.3 1995 9 10 16 7.4 0.9 2.2 2000 7 8 15 7.2 0.8 2.1
SOURCE BUC9302 BUC9302 UNP9200 UNP9200 UNP9200 UNP9200
I. C. Population Estimates: CYPRUS
YEAR VALUE SOURCE 1950 494,000 UNP9200 1955 530,000 UNP9200 1960 573,000 UNP9200 1965 582,000 UNP9200 1970 615,000 UNP9200 1975 609,000 UNP9200 1980 629,000 UNP9200 1985 665,000 UNP9200 1990 702,000 UNP9200 1995 736,000 UNP9200 2000 765,000 UNP9200
I. D. BCG Vaccination Coverage: CYPRUS
BCG VACCINATION COVERAGE
YEAR PERCENT SOURCE 1980 - 1981 - 1982 - 1983 - 1984 - 1985 - 1986 - 1987 - 1988 - 1989 - 1990 - 1991 - 1992 - 1993 -
I. E. DPT3 Vaccination Coverage: CYPRUS
DPT 3 VACCINATION COVERAGE
YEAR PERCENT SOURCE 1980 34 WHE8701 1981 56 WHE8701 1982 26 WHE8701 1983 34 WHE8701 1984 30 WHE8701 1985 - 1986 91 WHE8800 1987 93 WHE8801 1988 88 WHE9000 1989 93 WHE9100 1990 - 1991 90 WHE9200 1992 - 1993 -
I. F. Measles Vaccination Coverage: CYPRUS
MEASLES VACCINATION COVERAGE
YEAR PERCENT SOURCE 1980 29 WHE8701 1981 28 WHE8701 1982 21 WHE8701 1983 19 WHE8701 1984 25 WHE8701 1985 - 1986 60 WHE8800 1987 91 WHE8801 1988 74 WHE9000 1989 76 WHE9100 1990 - 1991 74 WHE9200 1992 - 1993 -
I. G. Polio3 Vaccination Coverage: CYPRUS
POLIO 3 VACCINATION COVERAGE
YEAR PERCENT SOURCE 1980 35 WHE8701 1981 44 WHE8701 1982 27 WHE8701 1983 36 WHE8701 1984 31 WHE8701 1985 - 1986 91 WHE8800 1987 93 WHE8801 1988 90 WHE9000 1989 93 WHE9100 1990 - 1991 90 WHE9200 1992 - 1993 -
I. H. Tetanus2+ Vaccination Coverage: CYPRUS
TETANUS 2 VACCINATION COVERAGE
YEAR PERCENT SOURCE 1980 - 1981 - 1982 - 1983 49 WHE8701 1984 30 WHE8701 1985 - 1986 - 1987 - 1988 - 1989 - 1990 - 1991 63 WHE9401 1992 - 1993 -
I. I. ORS Access, ORS and/or RHF Use Rates: CYPRUS
ORS ORT/RHF YEAR ACCESS SOURCE USE SOURCE 1983 - - 1984 - - 1985 - - 1986 54 WHD8800 5 WHD8800 1987 23 WHD8900 2 WHD8900 1988 20 WHD9000 2 WHD9000 1989 35 WHD9100 4 WHD9100 1990 - - 1991 - - 1992 - - 1993 95 WHD9401 60 WHD9401 1994 - -
I. J. Contraceptive Prevalence Rate: CYPRUS
MODERN ALL YEAR METHODS SOURCE METHODS SOURCE 1980 - - 1981 - - 1982 - - 1983 - - 1984 - - 1985 - - 1986 - - 1987 - - 1988 - - 1989 - - 1990 - - 1991 - - 1992 - - 1993 - - 1994 - -
I. K. Access to Potable Water: CYPRUS
YEAR RURAL SOURCE URBAN SOURCE 1980 - - 1981 - - 1982 - - 1983 100 WHO9101 100 WHO9101 1984 - - 1985 100 WHO9101 100 WHO9101 1986 - - 1987 - - 1988 100 WHO9101 100 WHO9101 1989 - - 1990 100 WHO9200 100 WHO9200 1991 - - 1992 - - 1993 - - 1994 - -
I. L. Access to Adequate Sanitation: CYPRUS
YEAR RURAL SOURCE URBAN SOURCE 1980 - - 1981 - - 1982 - - 1983 100 WHO9101 100 WHO9101 1984 - - 1985 100 WHO9101 100 WHO9101 1986 - - 1987 - - 1988 100 WHO9101 100 WHO9101 1989 - - 1990 100 WHO9200 96 WHO9200 1991 - - 1992 - - 1993 - - 1994 - -
I. M. Comparative Infant Mortality Rates: CYPRUS
COUNTRY 1950 SOURCE 1993 SOURCE CYPRUS 71 BUC9302 10 BUC9302 JORDAN 86 WBK9302 24 WBK9302 LEBANON 117 BUC9302 42 BUC9302 SAUDI ARABIA 387 BUC9302 56 BUC9302
I. N. Comparisons Vaccination Coverage Rates: CYPRUS
COUNTRY INDICATOR YEAR VALUE SOURCE CYPRUS DPT 3 1991 90 WHE9200 Measles 1991 74 WHE9200 Polio 3 1991 90 WHE9200 Tetanus 2 1991 63 WHE9401 JORDAN BCG 1990 16 DHS9004 DPT 3 1993 95 WHE9401 Measles 1993 88 WHE9401 Polio 3 1993 95 WHE9401 Tetanus 2 1993 30 WHE9401 LEBANON DPT 3 1992 85 WHE9202 Measles 1992 51 WHE9202 Polio 3 1992 85 WHE9202 SAUDI ARABIA BCG 1993 99 WHE9401 DPT 3 1993 94 WHE9401 Measles 1993 90 WHE9401 Polio 3 1993 94 WHE9401 Tetanus 2 1993 62 WHE9401
I. O. Comparisons ORS Access, ORS and/or RHF Use Rates: CYPRUS
COUNTRY INDICATOR YEAR VALUE SOURCE CYPRUS ORS Access Rate 1993 95 WHD9401 ORT Use Rate 1993 60 WHD9401 JORDAN ORS Access Rate 1993 93 WHD9401 ORT Use Rate 1993 53 WHD9401 LEBANON ORS Access Rate 1992 95 WHD9300 ORT Use Rate 1992 72 WHD9300 SAUDI ARABIA ORS Access Rate 1993 100 WHD9401 ORT Use Rate 1993 90 WHD9401
II. Data Notes
NOTES ON MORTALITY ESTIMATION
Throughout this profile, references are made to infant and under 5 mortality rates for individual countries or groups of countries. In past years, the primary source of data on infant mortality was the World Population Prospects, a set of estimates updated every two years by the Estimates and Projections Section of the Population Division of the Department of International Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations. The primary source of data on under 5 mortality was a special report published in 1988 by the same group. Where another source, such as a recent Demographic and Health Survey or a national census, was available for a given country, the reported values from that source were cited in place of the United Nations estimates if the technical staff of USAID in the Country Mission and/or the appropriate regional bureaus confirmed the validity of the alternative source.
Known as indirect estimates, those of the United Nations are generated from accepted demographic models which combine the results of all available surveys and censuses in a given country to produce a single time series of estimates and projections. When new empirical data becomes available for a given country, the entire time series of estimates and projections is updated. Thus, using conventional demographic approaches, a survey done in 1990 may generate a new estimate of a mortality rate for 1970 or 1980.
During 1993, a new set of estimates for mortality was generated for 82 countries for publication in the "World Development Report 1993" and a forthcoming UNICEF publication entitled "The Progress of Nations." Based on a curve-fitting model, the methodology applied to generate these new estimates purports to depict more accurately the trend derived from all available data sources for a country. Like the estimates generated using conventional demographic models, the entire time series might change upon the addition of a new empirical source. These estimates were made available to USAID through the courtesy of the "World Development Report" of the World Bank and UNICEF. The selection of the mortality rates was done through a consultative process involving representatives of the Office of Health in USAID s Research and Development Bureau, USAID's Regional Bureaus and, in many cases, the USAID Country Missions. The source determined to best reflect the reality in a country for the current values of infant and under 5 mortality was identified and one of a number of a computation procedures, depending on the source selected for the current value, was applied to estimate the longitudinal rates. The consideration of the additional source of data developed for the "World Development Report" and UNICEF during the consultative process has prompted some changes in the reporting of mortality rates from those reported in recent years. DEFINITIONS
Total Population: The mid-year estimate of the total number of individuals in a country.
Average Annual Rate of Growth: An estimate of the rate at which a population is increasing (or decreasing) in a given year.
Infant Mortality Rate: The estimated number of deaths in infants (children under age one) in a given year per 1,000 live births in that same year. This rate may be calculated by direct methods (counting births and deaths) or by indirect methods (applying well-established demographic models).
Under 5 Mortality Rate: The estimated number of children born in a given year who will die before reaching age five per thousand live births in that same year. This rate may also be calculated by direct or indirect methods.
Maternal Mortality Ratio: The estimated number of maternal deaths per 100,000 live births where a maternal death is one which occurs when a woman is pregnant or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy from any cause related to or aggravated by the pregnancy or its management. Although sometimes referred to as a rate, this measure is actually a ratio because the unit of measurement of the numerator (maternal deaths) is different than that of the denominator (live births). The measure would be a rate if the units were the same. Extremely difficult to measure, maternal mortality can be derived from vital registration systems (usually underestimated), community studies and surveys (requires very large sample sizes) or hospital registration (usually overestimated).
Crude Birth Rate: An estimate of the number of live births per 1,000 population in a given year.
Crude Death Rate: An estimate of the number of deaths per 1,000 population in a given year.
Life Expectancy At Birth: An estimate of the average number of years a newborn can expect to live. Life expectancy is computed from age-specific death rates for a given year. It should be noted that low life expectancies in developing countries are, in large part, due to high infant mortality.
Number of Births: An estimate of the number of births occurring in a given year.
Annual Infant Deaths: An estimate of the number of deaths occurring to children under age one in a given year.
Total Fertility Rate: An estimate of the average number of children a woman would bear during her lifetime given current age-specific fertility rates.
CHILD SURVIVAL INDICATORS
Vaccination Coverage In Children: An estimate of the proportion of living children between the ages of 12 and 23 months who have been vaccinated before their first birthday -- three times in the cases of polio and DPT and once for both measles and BCG. Vaccination coverage rates are calculated in two ways. Administrative estimates are based on reports of the number of inoculations of an antigen given during a year to children who have not yet reached their first birthday divided by an estimate of the pool of children under one year of age eligible for vaccination. Survey estimates are based on samples of children between the ages of 12 and 23 months.
Vaccination Coverage In Mothers: An estimate of the proportion of women in a given time period who have received two doses of tetanus toxoid during their pregnancies. This indicator is being changed in many countries to account for the cumulative effect of tetanus toxoid boosters. A woman and her baby are protected against tetanus when a mother has had only one or, perhaps, no boosters during a given pregnancy so long as the woman had received the appropriate number of boosters in the years preceding the pregnancy in question. (The appropriate number of boosters required during any given pregnancy varies with number received previously and the time elapsed.) The revised indicator is referred to as TT2+. Rates are computed using administrative methods or surveys.
DPT Drop-out Rate: An estimate of the proportion of living children between the ages of 12 and 23 months who received at least one DPT vaccination but who did not receive the entire series of three vaccinations before their first birthdays.
Oral Rehydration Salts (ORS) Access Rate: An estimate of the proportion of the population under age five with reasonable access to a trained provider of oral rehydration salts who receives adequate supplies. This is a particularly difficult indicator to measure and, therefore, it may fluctuate dramatically from year to year as improved methods of estimation are devised.
ORS and/or Recommended Home Fluid (RHF) Use Rate: An estimate of the proportion of all cases of diarrhea in children under age five treated with ORS and/or a recommended home fluid. ORT use may be determined using administrative means or surveys. In general, administrative estimates are based on estimates of the number of episodes of diarrhea in the target population for a given year and the quantity of ORS available. Thus, changes in the estimates of the frequency of diarrhea episodes can alter the ORT use rate as well as real changes in the pattern of use. Surveys are more precise in that they focus on the actual behavior of mothers in treating diarrhea in the two-week period prior to the survey.
Contraceptive Prevalence Rate: An estimate of the proportion of women, aged 15 through 44 (or, in some countries, 15 through 49), in union or married, currently using a modern method of contraception. Where sources fail to distinguish modern and traditional methods, the combined rate is shown.
Adequate Nutritional Status: An individual child of a certain age is said to be adequately nourished if his/her weight is greater than the weight corresponding to two Z-scores (two standard deviations) below the median weight achieved by children of that age. The median weight and the distribution of weights around that median in a healthy population are taken from a standard established by the National Center for Health Statistics, endorsed by the World Health Organization (WHO). The indicator for the population as a whole is the proportion of children 12 through 23 months of age who are adequately nourished.
Appropriate Infant Feeding: A composite estimate of the proportion of infants (children under age one) being breastfed and receiving other foods at an appropriate age according to the following criteria: breastfed through infancy with no bottle- feeding, exclusively breastfed through four months (120 days) of age, and receiving other foods if over six months of age (181 days). Water is not acceptable in the first four months (120 days). ORS is considered acceptable at any age. Surveys are the only source of data to form this indicator. Surveys yield an estimate of how many infants are being fed correctly at the moment of the survey. They do not give an indication of the proportion of individual children fed appropriately throughout their first year of life. A number of sub-indicators may be calculated from the data used to form the composite, of which two are presented in this report.
Exclusive Breastfeeding: An estimate of the proportion of infants less than four months (120 days) of age who receive no foods or liquids other than breast milk.
Complementary Feeding: An estimate of the proportion of infants six to nine months of age (181 days to 299 days) still breastfeeding but also receiving complementary weaning foods.
Continued Breastfeeding: An estimate of the proportion of children breastfed for at least one year. In this report, all values presented for this indicator are the proportion of children 12 to 15 months of age at the time of the survey still receiving breast milk.
OTHER HEALTH INDICATORS
HIV-1 Seroprevalence, Urban: An estimate of the proportion of all persons (pregnant women, blood donors, and other persons with no known risk factors) living in urban areas infected with HIV-1, the most virulent and globally prevalent strain of the human immunodeficiency virus.
HIV-1 Seroprevalence, Rural: An estimate of the proportion of all persons living in rural areas infected with HIV-1. Access to Improved Water, Urban: An estimate of the proportion of all persons living in urban areas (defined roughly as population centers of 2,000 or more persons) who live within 200 meters of a stand pipe or fountain source of water.
Access to Improved Water, Rural: An estimate of the proportion of all persons not living in urban areas with a source of water close enough to home that family members do not spend a disproportionate amount of time fetching water.
Access to Sanitation, Urban: An estimate of the proportion of all persons living in urban areas with sanitation service provided through sewer systems or individual in-house or in-compound excreta disposal facilities (latrines).
Access to Sanitation, Rural: An estimate of the proportion of all persons not living in urban areas with sanitation coverage provided through individual in-house or in-compound excreta disposal facilities (latrines).
Deliveries By Trained Attendants: An estimate of the proportion of deliveries attended by at least one physician, nurse, midwife, or trained traditional birth attendant.III. Sources SEPTEMBER 1994
BUC9300 United States Bureau of the Census, Facsimile from
Peter Johnson dated 3/3/93. Data prepared following the meeting on mortality estimation, 2/25/93.
BUC9302 Time series estimates of Infant Mortality generated by
applying the ratio of the BUCEN estimate for 1992 to the World Population Prospects estimate for 1992 to the annual values dating back to 1950 as estimated in the World Population Prospects. Under 5 Mortality estimates are calculated by applying the appropriate Coale-Demeny model to the Infant Mortality estimates.
BUC9401 U.S. Bureau of the Census (BUCEN). International Data Base. Version dated March, 1994.
CALXX01 Calculated from the values for total population, crude
birth rate and infant mortality from designated sources for those variables.
DHS9004 Department of Statistics, Ministry of Health,
Institutefor Resource Development /Macro International,Inc. Jordan Population and Family Health Survey 1990. Columbia, MD: IRD, 1992.
UNP9200 Department of International Economic and Social
Affairs, United Nations. World Population Prospects 1992. (ST/ESA/SER.A/120) New York: UN, 1992.
WBK9302 Mortality rate time series generated from Ken Hill
equations provided in a personal communication, March, 1993. The equations were developed for the World Development Report, 1993 and a UNICEF publication, The Progress of Nations.
WHD8800 World Health Organization. Programme for Control of
Diarrhoeal Diseases: Sixth Programme Report 1986-1987. (WHO/CDD/88.28) Geneva: WHO, 1988.
WHD8900 World Health Organization. Programme for Control of
Diarrhoeal Diseases: Programme Report (WHO/CDD/89.31) Geneva: WHO, 1989.
WHD9000 World Health Organization, Programme for Control of Diarrhoeal Diseases facsimile, February 14, 1990.
WHD9100 World Health Organization. Programme for Control of
Diarrhoeal Diseases: Interim Programme Report 1990. (WHO/CDD/91.36) Geneva: WHO, 1991.
WHD9300 World Health Organization, Programme for Control of
Diarrhoeal Diseases; provisional data for Annex 1 of the Ninth Programme Report. Received by personal communication, February 16, 1993.
WHD9401 Advanced Copy of Annex 1 of the WHO/CDR Annual Report, Received by facsimile, March 29, 1994.
WHE8701 World Health Organization. Expanded Programme on
Immunization Information System Report, July 1987. Geneva: WHO, 1987.
WHE8800 World Health Organization. Expanded Programme on
Immunization Information System Report, January 1988. Geneva: WHO, 1988.
WHE8801 World Health Organization. Expanded Programme on
Immunization Information System Report, July 1988. Geneva: WHO, 1988.
WHE9000 World Health Organization. Expanded Programme on
Immunization Information System Report, January 1990. (WHO/EPI/CEIS/90.1) Geneva: WHO, 1990.
WHE9100 World Health Organization. Expanded Programme on
Immunization Information System Report, April 1991. (WHO/EPI/CEIS/91.1) Geneva: WHO, 1991.
WHE9200 World Health Organization. Expanded Programme on
Immunization Information System Report, April 1992. (WHO/EPI/CEIS/92.1) Geneva: WHO, 1992.
WHE9202 World Health Organization. Expanded Programme on
Immunization Information System Report, October 1992. (WHO/EPI/CEIS/92.2) Geneva: WHO, 1992.
WHE9401 Download of WHO/EPI vaccination coverage files from INTERNET, March 24, 1994.
WHO9101 World Health Organization. World Health Organization
Disk: Water Supply and Sanitation Service Coverage. Geneva: WHO, October 29, 1991.
WHO9200 The International Drinking Water and Sanitation
Decade,1981-90: End of decade review, (as of December 1990), August 1992. CWS Unit, Division of Enviromental Health, World Health Organization, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland.