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The new round of talks began on 26 October 1992 in New York and meetings between the U.N. Secretary-General and former President Vassiliou and Mr. Denktash took place until 11 November 1992 when the talks were adjourned to be resumed in March 1993. As the third round of UN - sponsored Cyprus peace talks ended in New York on 11 November, Secretary-General Boutros Ghali presented an 18-page document codifying the positions of the Greek and Turkish Cypriot sides on UN proposals for an overall Cyprus settlement.
Entitled "Summary of the current positions of the two sides in relation to the set of ideas" (S/24472), the U.N. paper is divided into three columns; the first two columns represent the positions of the Greek Cypriot and Turkish Cypriot sides, while in the third column the U.N. position is quoted as this appears in the relevant U.N. Resolutions and the set of ideas. It is apparent from the above document that Mr. Denktash maintains the same intransigent stand portraying a difference of position from the U.N. document on several outstanding issues.
In a report (S/24830) submitted to the Security Council on 19 November on the course of the talks, the U.N. Chief suggested eight concrete measures "that would help create a new climate of confidence".
These include among others the reduction in the number of Turkish occupation forces in Cyprus, the return of the occupied town of Varosha to U.N. control and an island-wide census. The 24-page report takes a harsh stand against Denktash, noting the solution he sought was "incompatible" with the UN-prepared set of ideas, endorsed by the Security Council as the appropriate basis for reaching an overall agreement that will reunite Cyprus into a bizonal, bicommunal federation.
After considering the report of the Secretary General, the Security Council approved Resolution 789/92 on 24 November 1992. The main provisions of this Resolution refer to the confidence-building measures, and are given below:

Former President Vassiliou said the main elements of the resolution were very important for Cyprus' cause and helpful for the efforts made by the Greek Cypriot side for a solution. However, Turkish Cypriot leader Rauf Denktash has reacted angrily to Resolution 789 and threatened to resign if forced to sign a Cyprus settlement based on UN Security Council lines.
On 20 January, 1993, the European Parliament adopted a resolution in which it calls on the Government of Turkey to withdraw its occupation troops from the Republic of Cyprus, it also calls on the Turkish side to accept without further delay the confidence-building measures adopted by Security Council Resolution 789/92 and to co-operate with other interested parties for their immediate implementation. On February 28, Glafcos Clerides was sworn in as the fourth President of Cyprus. In his investiture speech the new President stressed that the policy of his Government will centre on the attainment of a viable solution through peaceful means, based on the U.N. Resolutions on Cyprus, the European principles, understanding of the fears and sensitivities of both communities and seeking effective guarantees through Cyprus' entry into the European community.
On March 30, 1993, the Secretary General met jointly with President Clerides and Turkish Cypriot leader Mr. Denktash at United Nations Headquarters. The purpose of the meeting was to discuss the timing, modalities and preparations for the resumption of substantive, direct, negotiations. The two leaders expressed their willingness to resume the joint negotiations on 24 May, 1993, in New York. The joint negotiations were preceded by a preparatory process in which the representatives of the Secretary-General met in Nicosia with the leaders of the two communities. Meanwhile the Secretary-General has appointed Mr. Gustave Feissel, a U.N. aide involved in the U.N. peace negotiating process on Cyprus, as his Deputy Special Representative in Cyprus on 6 April, 1993.
Also on May 21, he appointed former Canadian Prime Minister Joe Clark as his Special Representative for Cyprus. Mr. Clark replaced Mr. Oscar Camilion. On May 24, a new round of U.N. sponsored Cyprus peace talks resumed in New York under the auspices of U.N. Secretary General. Mr. Ghali presented to the Cyprus President Mr. Glafcos Clerides and to the Turkish Cypriot leader Mr. Denktash, three U.N. documents which included a series of confidence-building measures. These U.N. papers proposed the transfer of the fenced part of the Turkish occupied eastern coastal town of Famagusta to the U.N. administration, the re-opening of the Nicosia International Airport under U.N. control and the implementation of measures to boost inter-communal contacts in the island.
The Greek Cypriot side has accepted in principle the three U.N. documents, provided that no provisions were added that would have the effect, directly or indirectly of recognizing the "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus". Mr. Denktash, however, presented a series of unreasonable demands such as the recognition of an illegal airport and two ports in the occupied area of Cyprus, which were turned down by Mr. Clerides and the United Nations. The representatives of the five Permanent Members of the Security Council each made statements in specific support of the proposals related to Varosha and Nicosia International Airport and called for prompt acceptance of these proposals. Mr. Denktash reiterated his wish to undertake consultations in the occupied Nicosia and Ankara. On the explicit undertaking by Mr. Denktash that the purpose of his consultations would be to promote acceptance of the proposals on Varosha and the Nicosia International Airport, it was agreed that the joint meetings would resume no later than Monday 14 June, 1993.
However the Turkish Cypriot leader, following his usual stalling tactics stated in Ankara that he would not return to New York on June 14 to resume negotiations as agreed and expressed strong criticism of the Varosha/Nicosia International Airport package, stating that he would be obliged to reject the package if pressed to give a positive or negative reply. The Secretary General in his report on his mission of good offices on Cyprus on 1 July, 1993, gives a full record of the events as these developed at the meeting regarding the confidence-building measures, which were held in New York in May and makes reference to all the stages in the formulation of the documents, the discussions held at the United Nations and the events that followed.
The Secretary-General repeats his statement of 12 June, that Mr. Denktash unilaterally failed to honour the agreement of 1 June on the confidence-building measures. He also expresses disappointment that, despite the assurances Mr. Denktash gave on 1 June in the presence of the President of the Security Council and the Representatives of the five Permanent Members, the Turkish side did not accept the documents on the confidencebuilding measures and failed to honour the agreement of 1 June to resume the joint meetings on 14 June.
The Secretary-General warned that if we do not achieve an agreement on the package of confidence-building measures, the effort to seek an overall settlement to the Cyprus problem will suffer a major setback.
Moreover the U.N. Security Council adopted on 27 May with 14 votes in favour and one abstention (Pakistan) a resolution on the U.N. Peace-Keeping Force in Cyprus (UNFICYP). The Council decided that, with effect from the next extension of UNFICYP's mandate on June 15, 1993, the force's costs which are not covered by voluntary contributions should be treated as expenses of the organization under article 17 (2) of the U.N. Charter, namely through assessed contributions. Cyprus and Greece have increased their contributions to 18,5 million dollars and 6,5 million dollars, respectively, thus covering more than half of UNFICYP's annual expenses, amounting to 47 million dollars. According to the resolution, the Council will conduct a comprehensive reassessment of UNFICYP in December 1993, when the force's mandate will be examined, "including the implications of progress on confidence-building measures and towards a political settlement for the future of the force".
As a first step, the force should be restructured in accordance with the Secretary-General's report "with the addition of a limited number of observers for reconnaissance". Meanwhile Mr. Ghali, in his report (S/25912) on the United Nations operations in Cyprus on 9 June, 1993, outlined his views on UNFICYP and covered the whole spectrum of activities, functions and responsibilities undertaken by the force. He further recommended that the Council extends UNFICYP's mandate for a further six month period. The Security Council in his resolution 839/93 of 11 June, 1993, extended once more the stationing in Cyprus of the United Nations Peace-Keeping Force established under resolution 186 (1964) for a further period ending on 15 December, 1993. The Cyprus Government remains committed to a bi-communal federal solution to the Cyprus Problem without the presence of foreign troops and settlers, that would safeguard the political independence and territorial integrity of Cyprus and fully protect and guarantee the human rights and fundamental freedoms of all Cypriots. In a United Federal Republic the people of Cyprus both Greek Cypriots and Turkish Cypriots will be able to maximize the potential of their communities and share in prosperity and peace in a common future.

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Giorgos Zacharia (lysi@mit.edu) 1995-1999.